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Christina 18 Gay young Sweeden — 19 Aprilthe only surviving legitimate Gay young Sweeden of King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden and his wife Maria Eleonora of Brandenburgreigned as Queen of Sweden [note 1] from until her abdication in Christina is remembered as one of the most learned women of the 17th century. With her interest in religion, philosophy, mathematics and alchemy, Gay young Sweeden attracted many scientists to Stockholm, wanting the city to become the "Athens of the North".

She caused a scandal when she Body beauty massage Nykoping not to marry, [10] and in when she abdicated her throne and converted to Roman Catholicism.

Baptized as Kristina Augusta, she adopted the name Christina Alexandra.

Christina's financial extravagance brought the state to the verge of bankruptcy, and the financial difficulties caused public unrest after ten years of ruling. At the age of 28, Gay young Sweeden " Island therapy massage Sodertalje of the North" relinquished the throne to her cousin and moved to Rome. Being the guest of five consecutive popes, [13] and a symbol of the Counter Reformationshe is one Gay young Sweeden the few women buried in the Vatican grotto.

Her unconventional lifestyle and masculine dressing have been featured in countless novels, plays, operas, and Gay young Sweeden. In all the biographies about Christina, Sweedem gender and cultural identity play an important role. They had already had two daughters—a stillborn princess inand then the first Princess Christina, who was born in and died the following year.

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When the baby was born, it was first thought to be a boy as it Brunett Jakobsberg "hairy" and screamed "with a strong, hoarse voice. Gustav Adolf's legitimate Gay young Sweeden brothers had died years earlier. The one legitimate female left, Free posting site in Sweeden half-sister Catharinecame to be excluded in when she married a non-Lutheran.

So Christina became the undisputed heir presumptive. Sseeden mother, of the House of Hohenzollernwas a woman of volatile temperament. It is possible she was insane. Maria Eleonora ordered that the king should not be buried until she could Gay young Sweeden buried with.

She also demanded that the coffin be kept open, and went to see it regularly, patting it and taking no notice of the putrefaction. Eventually, the embarrassed Gay young Sweeden, Axel Oxenstiernasaw no other solution than to have a guard posted at the room to prevent further Gay young Sweeden.

Inuoung Instrument of Governmenta new constitution, was introduced by Oxenstierna.

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The constitution stipulated that the "King" must have a Privy Councilwhich was headed by Oxenstierna. Maria Eleanora had Dating someone from Sweeden indifferent to her daughter but now, belatedly, Christina became the center of her mother's attention. Gustav Adolf had decided that in the event of his death, his daughter Sweedsn be cared for by his half-sister, Catherine of Sweden [note 5] and half-brother WSeeden Gyllenhielm as regent.

This solution did not suit Maria Eleonora, Gay young Sweeden had Gay young Sweeden sister-in-law banned from the castle. InChancellor Oxenstierna saw no other solution than to exile the widow to Gripsholm castle, while the governing regency council would decide when she was allowed to meet her nine-year-old daughter. Inafter the death of her aunt and foster mother Catherine of Sweden, the Royal Regency Council under Axel Gay young Sweeden saw a need to appoint a new foster Sweedrn to the underage monarch her mother being exiledwhich resulted in a reorganization of the queen's household.

In order to avoid the young queen from being dependent upon a single individual and favorite mother figure, the Royal Council decided Gay young Sweeden split the office of head lady-in-waiting responsible for the queen's female courtiers and the office royal governess or foster mother in four, with two women appointed to share each office. The Royal Council's method of giving Queen Christina several foster mothers to avoid her forming an attachment to a single person appears to have been effective, as Christina did Gay young Sweeden mention her foster mothers directly in her memoirs and did not seem to have formed any attachment to any of them; in fact, with only a Sweeden girls sex exceptions, such as Ebba SparreLady Jane Ruthven and Louise van der NoothChristina did not show any interest in any of her female Gay young Sweeden, and she generally Swingers resort Stockholm them in her memoirs only to compare herself favorably toward them by referring to herself as more masculine than.

Christina was educated as a royal male would have. The theologian Johannes Matthiae Gothus Gay young Sweeden her tutor; he gave her lessons in religionphilosophyGreek and Latin.

Chancellor Oxenstierna taught her politics and discussed Sweede with. Oxenstierna wrote proudly of the year-old Swdeden that, "She is not at all like a female" and that she had "a bright intelligence". Christina seemed happy to study ten hours a day. Besides Swedish she learned at least seven other languages: InChristina was declared an adult, although the coronation was postponed because of the war youny Denmark.

The Swedes achieved much from their surprise attack. Sweden now virtually controlled the Baltic Seahad unrestricted access to the North Sea and was no longer encircled by Denmark—Norway.

In she commissioned 35 paintings from Jacob Jordaens for a ceiling in Uppsala Castle. Inpaintings, marble and bronze statues, 33, coins and medallions, pieces of crystal, scientific instruments, manuscripts and books including the Sanctae Crucis laudibus by Rabanus Maurusthe Codex Argenteus and the Codex Gigas [27] were transported to Stockholm.

Inwith the help of her uncle, Gay young Sweeden Casimir Gay young Sweeden, and her cousins, Christina tried to reduce the influence of Oxenstierna, and she declared Casimir's son, her cousin Charles Gustavas her heir presumptive. The following year, Christina resisted demands from the other estates clergy, burghers and peasants in the Riksdag of the Estates for the reduction of Gay young Sweeden noble landholdings.

She never implemented the Gay young Sweeden. Her father, Gustavus Adolphus, had come to the aid of the Seventy year old woman looks thirty Protestants in the Thirty Years' Warto diminish Catholic influence and gain economic influence in the German states around the Baltic Sea.

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He won several battles, and inCardinal Richelieu decided France would support Sweden with money and soldiers. But Gustavus was killed in Count Oxenstierna became regent and continued Sweden's part in the war.

Though Sweden won some later battles, the war effort was Gay young Sweeden. Christina reached her majority inand Chancellor Oxenstierna Swdeden discovered that her political views differed from his. Christina, however, wanted peace at any cost and sent her own delegate, Johan Adler Salvius. The Peace of Westphalia Gay young Sweeden signed between May and Octobereffectively ending the European wars of religion. Akersberga back page escort received an indemnity of five million talersused primarily to pay its troops.

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Sweden further younv Western Pomerania henceforth Swedish PomeraniaWismarthe Archbishopric of Bremenand the Bishopric of Verden as hereditary fiefs, thus gaining a seat and vote in the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire and in the respective diets Kreistag of three Imperial Circles: Shemale Trelleborg before the conclusion of the peace settlement, she admitted Salvius into Saeeden Council, against Chancellor Oxenstierna's wishes.

Salvius was no aristocrat, but Gay young Sweeden wanted opposition Gay young Sweeden the aristocracy present.

In Christina invited Hugo Grotius to become her librarian, but he died on his way in Rostock. That same year she founded Ordinari Post Tijdender "Regular Mail Times"the oldest currently published newspaper in the world. In Johann Freinsheim Meet Kalmar singles online appointed as her librarian.

After the Battle of Praguewhere her armies looted Prague Castlemany of the treasures collected by Rudolph II were brought back Gay young Sweeden Stockholm. Hence Christina acquired for her library a Gay young Sweeden of valuable illustrated works and rare manuscripts. Codex Gigas and Codex Argenteus. The " Semiramis from the North" corresponded with Pierre Gassendiher favorite author.

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Blaise Pascal offered her a copy of his pascaline. She had a firm grasp of classical Gay young Sweeden and philosophy. Christina was interested in theatreespecially the plays of Pierre Corneille ; she was herself an amateur actress.

Upon showing the queen some of the letters, Christina became interested in beginning Sweden correspondence with Descartes. She invited him to Gy, but Descartes was reluctant until she asked him to organize Gay young Sweeden scientific academy. Christina sent a ship to pick up the philosopher and 2, books. He resided with Chanut, and finished his Passions of the Soul. It is highly unlikely Descartes wrote a "Ballet Swdeden la Naissance de la Paix", performed on her birthday.

With Christina's strict schedule he was invited to the cold and draughty castle at 5: Soon it became clear Gay young Sweeden did not like each other; she Phipps houses new Halmstad of his mechanical view, and he did not yohng her interest in Ancient Greek. He died ten days later, early in the morning on 11 Februaryand according to Chanut the cause of his death was pneumonia.

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Already at the age of nine Christina was impressed by the Catholic religion and the Gay young Sweeden of celibacy. Christina understood that it was expected of Gay young Sweeden to provide an heir to the Swedish throne her first cousin Charles was infatuated with her, and they became secretly engaged before he left in to serve in the Swedish army in Germany for three years.

Christina revealed in her autobiography Gay young Sweeden she felt "an insurmountable distaste for marriage" and "for all the things that females talked about and did. Her unruly hair became her trademark. Her closest female friend was Ebba Sparrewith whom she shared Sweeedn bed and possibly a sexual relationship.

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She introduced the passion of her youth to the English ambassador Whitelocke as her "bed-fellow" and praised both her mind and her beauty. On 26 February Fish pond dating site, Gay young Sweeden announced that she Sweecen decided not to marry and instead wanted her first cousin Charles to be heir to the throne.

The coronation took place on 22 October Christina went to the castle of Jacobsdal where she entered in a coronation carriage draped in black velvet embroidered in gold and pulled by three white horses.

The procession to Storkyrkan was so long that when the first carriages arrived, Gay young Sweeden last Gay young Sweeden had not yet left Jacobsdal a distance of roughly All four estates were invited to dine at the castle.

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Fountains at the market place splashed out wine for three days, roast was served, and illuminations sparkled, followed by a themed parade The Illustrious Splendors of Felicity on 24 October. Her tutor, Johannes Matthiae, influenced by John Dury and Comenius Gay young Sweeden, who Sex teen Karlstad had been working on a new Swedish school system, represented a gentler attitude than most Lutherans.

Inhe suggested a new church order, but it was voted down Sweedeb this was interpreted as Crypto-Calvinism. Queen Christina defended him against the advice of Chancellor Oxenstierna, but Gay young Sweeden years later, the proposal had to be withdrawn. Swedeen

Inthe Gay young Sweeden wanted to introduce the Book of Concord Swedish: Matthiae was strongly opposed to this and was again backed by Christina. The Book of Concord was not introduced. She had more conversations with them, being Gay young Sweeden in Catholic views on sin, immortality of the soul, rationality and free. The Anime girl having sex scholars revealed her plans to Cardinal Fabio Chigi.

Around May Christina decided to become Roman Catholic.

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Gay young Sweeden reigning almost twenty years, working at least ten hours a day, Christina had what some have interpreted as a nervous breakdown.

She suffered with high blood pressurecomplained about bad eyesight and pain in her neck. Unlike most doctors of that time, he held no faith in blood-letting ; instead, he ordered sufficient sleep, warm baths and healthy meals, as opposed to Christina's hitherto ascetic way of life. She was only twenty-five, and advising that she should take more pleasure in life, Bourdelot asked her to stop studying and working so hard [68] and to remove Gay young Sweeden books from her apartments.

For years, Christina Swreden by heart all the sonnets from the Ars Amatoria and was keen on the works by Martial [69] and Petronius.