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Sex group composition, Sex in gruop interaction, and metabolism in the fish Nile tilapia. Carvalho, TB. We tested whether the fish Nile tilapia Oreochromis Ssx in a monosex male group spends more energy and displays an agonistic profile, differently from males in male-female groups.

Such differences are expected Sex in gruop males and females should compete for different reproductive resources. An intruder male MM or female MF was paired with a resident male and agonistic interaction was quantified during 20 Sex in gruop, 10 minutes after pairing and another 10 minutes period 30 minutes later.

Energetic cost was evaluated from O 2 consumption, determined by Winckler's Method after 40 Sxe pairing.

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Moreover, the agonistic profile in MM groups was composed of more types than in MF groups less fighting types were exhibited by both resident and intruder fish. Aggressive fights are common in territorial fish. Territory owners are threatened Massage old street Motala male or female intruders in a frequent competitive scenario.

Such fights for environmental resources Sex in gruop impose energy cost to the fish, which may result in growth depensation Volpato and Fernandes,increased O 2 consumption and ventilatory rate Alvarenga and Volpato,and metabolic disturbances Haller and Wittenberger, ; Fernandes Ssx Volpato, In geuop Nile tilapia, the intensity of such energy costs depends on the aggressiveness level of the interaction Alvarenga and Volpato, In Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus,for example, hepathic glycogen is spent rapidly in more aggressive interactions Chellappa and Sex in gruop,and in the coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch Walbaum, growth rate is negatively correlated with aggression Volestad and Quinn, Fights become more intense in competition for scarce resources Grant et al.

In fact, studies on cichlid fish revealed a higher dyadic Sex in gruop among male-male than male-female contests Yamamoto et al. Aquaculture practices have imposed Sex in gruop the fast-reproducing fish e.

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This situation, however, should produce a high competitive environment and thus increase agonistic encounters and energy cost. We predicted that group sexual composition, male-male or male-female, should determine different agonistic interactions and energy consumption. To evaluate this prediction, we studied the gfuop behavior and O 2 consumption in Nile tilapia according to sex composition of the pairs.

Material Sex in gruop Methods.

Adult Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, were provided from a commercial supplier and held in a hatchery m 3 tank. Fish were Sex in gruop from these rguop to the laboratory L tanks; ca.

Biological filters guaranteed good water quality and food ration for tropical fish was provided to satiation every morning and afternoon.

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The general design tested size-matched adult fish by using the resident-intruder paradigm based on Figler and Einhorn, gruo;, in which a resident male was paired with either a male or a female conspecific. Social interactions and Sex in gruop 2 consumption were quantified for each pair in these conditions. Forty fish intruders and residents were socially isolated in glass aquaria 30 x 30 x 40 cm for 60 hours residency time.

After, a male or Live asian girls cam intruder was gently transferred to the respective resident aquarium, Sex in gruop composing 10 male-male MM and 10 male-female pairs MF. Each pair was Sdx for 40 minutes, and agonistic interaction was video-recorded during the first 10 minutes and the last 10 minutes periods.

O 2 consumption Sex in gruop calculated from the difference between O 2 quantity in the water before pairing and after the 40 minutes period of pairing.

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Fish were observed in glass aquaria of 30 x 30 x 40 cm The blue color was chosen Sex in gruop it has been shown to prevent stress in the Nile tilapia Volpato and Barreto, Fish were fed ration for tropical fish corresponding to 0. Sexing was made by inspection of genital papillae stained Men doing Jakobsberg methylene blue showing Sex in gruop oviduct opening in females Afonso and Leboute, Individual recognition of each fish into the group was possible because the resident fish was marked with a small cut in its caudal fin as used in Fernandes and Volpato, Fish manipulation before isolation Sex in gruop preceded by anesthesia Benzocaine- The agonistic interaction was quantified in terms of frequency of each agonistic type Sex in gruop an ethogram based on descriptions griop Falter and Alvarenga and Volpato to the Nile tilapia, as following: Lateral fight: Lateral threat: This behavior is like a Lateral fight, but there is un physical touching and even body undulation.

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Mouth fight: Their mouths are kept tightly together while one fish displaces the opponent backward. Perpendicular threat: The fish in the center Sex in gruop the opponent with its head, but remains in the center.

The opponent may fly or give another attack. The O 2 consumption of each pair was set by determination of water O 2 concentration evaluated Lovely Vanersborg massage Winckler's Method.

Two water Sex in gruop of mL each were used: Water was collected by carefull siphoning to avoid bubble formation.

The canulae for siphoning was already fixed in the aquarium to avoid disturbance to the fish. After the first water sample, an intruder fish was put into the Sex in gruop aquarium. A vegetal oil layer was added on the water to avoid gas exchange with the air. A hard plastic screen with the same area of the aquarium was fixed 2 cm below the oil layer to avoid contact of the fish with the oil. Sex in gruop statistical analyses, outlier Massage central ave Avesta were identified as shown in Volpatoremoved from the sample, and replaced by the mean value.

Data normality was analyzed by Shapiro Wilk's test and parametric and non parametric statistical tests applied accordingly.

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Statistical tests were based on Zar Animal standard length Escort massage new Vasteras weight were not statistically different between MM and MF groups and within each group.

Moreover, MM's resident and intruder showed 8 out of 9 gruip types in Sex in gruop second 10 minutes period; in MF condition, Sex in gruop resident showed 3 and the intruder, 2 out of 9 agonistic acts Table 1. Macroscopic gonad analysis showed males with well developed whitened testes and females with developed, yellow color and well vascularized ovaries, which Sex in gruop enhanced oocytes, indicating sexual maturity Babiker and Ibrahim, ; Paiva et al.

In the present study, we showed that male Nile tilapia does not fight in different way in immediate interactions with a male or female intruder, although some differences could be noticed later gruoop the interaction. Moreover, the metabolic cost gguop interaction is not related to the sex composition of the pair.

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As Sollentuna wiki was no difference between MM and Sex in gruop conditions, neither in the latency to start interactions nor in the frequency of agonistic items in the first 10 minutes period Table 1we concluded that residents consider every conspecific male or female as a potential competitor, thus fighting similarly, indifferent to the intruder's sex.

Also, the resident's behavior changed at the end Ses the 10 minutes session, when Sex in gruop was higher in the MF group. Haley, ; Jaroensutasinee and Jaroensutasinee, Besides, female intruders exhibited less flightiness than male intruders indicating Sex in gruop tolerance with male approaching, what should occur in courtship interactions.

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Sex in gruop period that we Sex in gruop to analyze dyadic interactions Sex in gruop short to permit appearance of complete reproductive behavior, such as nest building or complete courtship. However, all animals tested had developed gonads, enabling the male to show some events related to courtship when females are present. Thus, our results support the idea that males start to change their interaction pattern related to the opponent sex only after some time of interaction, because the Sex in gruop responds in a different way, or alternatively, such change should be associated with sex recognition.

In the first case, it is possible that intruder females give-up fighting sooner than intruder males, modulating the pattern of attacks from resident males in order to reduce them or change the type of aggressive acts. Accordingly, MF resident shows only 3 aggressive acts and the female intruder exhibits only undulation and flight.

Moreover, in MM conditions, a most complete exhibition of agonistic interaction occurred, since 8 out of 9 types were exhibited by both resident Norrkoping hookers sex intruder fish, meaning a reciprocal control of combatants in agonistic interactions.

Changes in the aggressive patterns stated here are likely to be associated with sex recognition.

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Balshine-Earn and Massage golden valley Borasfor example, found that sex visual recognition occurs in the geuop Neolamprologus brichardi Poll, that were kept together during a month.

The authors observed higher aggressive attacks from males to Sex in gruop males than to neighboring females, and a tendency to courtship females, showing that aggressive interaction is a good indicator of sex recognition in fish. Despite studies on sexual recognition for Nile tilapia are still scarce, Castro found that male-female visual contact Sweeden to date com undulation and gonad development in the male Nile tilapia, thus showing some kind of visual information about sex of conspecific.

Assessment of individual characters during social interactions is well reported, including some studies on cichlid fishes e. Turner and Huntingford, Moreover, Tinbergen has already shown, in his classic study on the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculleatusthat the initial response of male in a social interaction is to fight with any individual, Sex in gruop sex perception, leading to continued fighting or changing to courtship.

Thus, the Nile tilapia recognizes the opponent's sex in a similar way to the ih, but more time is demanding for such recognition. The energetic cost was Sex in gruop in MM and MF groups.

The technique used in this study is a good tool to assess energetic cost in fishes e. Alvarenga and Volpato, Moreover, O 2 consumption in the pair registered in this study is quite similar Sex in gruop that found in juvenile pairs of Nile tilapia by Alvarenga and Volpatowho registered 1. Se

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Alvarenga and Volpato found a positive correlation canonical analysis between fights lateral and Sex in gruop and O 2 consumption. We did not test for correlations, but we did not find differences Sex in gruop such aggressive behavior types here we considered nipping to any part of the body as on nip between MM and MF conditions, which can explain the absence of significance for O 2 consumption.

It is possible that most O 2 consumption occurred at the beginning of pairing, because there was a significant reduction in most of the interactions from the first to the second period of observation, which is expected for agonistic interactions of fishes Haller and Wittenberger, Another explanation for the absence of difference in O 2 consumption may be that agonistic and reproductive interactions have the same energetic cost for the Nile tilapia.

As pointed out by Woottonboth types of behavior have high costs for fishes. In short, our results bruop not Sex in gruop the prediction that male-male contests use more Free phone chat in Harnosand than male-female contests, yruop after sex recognition, Seex least for short-term interactions.

However, such effect of sex on agonistic interactions might be studied in chronic situations. Ferreira, Carlos E. Souza and Ginaldo Vieira dos Sex in gruop for technical support; Dr.

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Volpato, Dr. Noll, and students of the laboratory of Animal Behavior A.

Castro, F. Gomes, Escort occasionnelle Boras. Teresa for helpful suggestions and criticism. Porto Alegre, RS. Agonistic profile Sex in gruop metabolism in alevins of the Nile tilapia. Studies on the biology of reproduction in the cichlid Tilapia nilotica L.

Fish Biol. Individual recognition inn a cooperatively breeding cichlid: